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HOTSPOT service specifications


Service Description

The Hotspot Detection (HOTSPOT) service employs an hotspot algorithm that requires as input a calibrated Dataset having at least nir and swir22 assets (e.g. for Sentinel/2 MSI those are respectively the 8A and 12 bands). It calculates the ratio and the difference between those assets in TOA reflectance:

\[ ratio = { swi22 \over nir } \]
\[ delta = swir22 - nir \]

Pixels over water are masked and then excluded from the hotspot detection in case of TOA reflectance for swir22 asset is minor than 0.04. Hotspot and candidate hotspots are then identified using the following expressions:

\[ hotspot = { ratio>2 } , { delta>0.15 } \]
\[ candidate_{hotspot} = { ratio>1.1 } , { delta>0.1 } \]

The algorithm performs a background characterization around candidate hotspot pixels in case of a large fire event. The aggregated hotspot size is increased if the number of candidate fire pixels is less than the half of the total pixels in the window (approximately 2x2 km). Statistics (mean and standard deviation of the ratio) are also computed for pixels within the windows considered in the background characterization. In a later stage, the algorithm undertakes contextual tests which are needed to decide for all candidate hotspot pixels if they can be classified as hotspot or not.

In this process, two conditions needs to be satisfied to classify a candidate pixel as hotspot:

  1. ratio > ratio_mean + max((3 * ratio_std), 0.5),

  2. swir22 > swir22_mean + max((3 * swir22_std), 0.05).

Finally, the algorithm returns the hotspot classification of the entire scene as a binary mask (No-Fire=0, Hotspot=1). Output binary classification file is given as GeoTIFF in COG format.


The integrated algorithm does not perform any cloud/smoke masking of source EO data.


This processor uses as input a calibrated product from the Optical Products having swir22 and nir STAC assets.

Examples of such missions are:

  • Sentinel-2
  • Landsat-8


The HOTSPOT service requires a specified number of mandatory and optional parameters. All service parameters are listed in the table below.

Parameter Description Required Default value
Otical calibrated dataset Optical calibrated dataset with red, nir and swir22 assets YES
Area of Interest Area of interest expressed in WKT NO

Table 1 - Service parameters for the HOTSPOT processor.


This processing service generates the outputs described below:

Long Name Hotspot overview
Short Name overview-hotspot
Description Hotspot bitmask in red color scale
Processing level L1C / L2
Data Type Unsigned 8-bit Integer (UInt 8)
Band 4
Format COG
Projection EPSG:4326 - WGS84
Units N/A
Valid Range [1 - 255]
Fill Value 0

Long Name Hotspot bit mask
Short Name hotspot
Description Bitmask from hotspot detection based on nir08 and swir16 reflectances
Processing level L1C / L2
Data Type 1-bit
Band Single
Format COG
Projection EPSG:4326 - WGS84
Units N/A
Valid Range [0 - 1]
Fill Value N/A